Poverty and social exclusion

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Key data

Whilst there is a wealth of data on poverty and social exclusion, a number of studies are regarded as 'key' – either through their subject/geographical coverage, their use of standard measures, their longevity, their usage among the research community or because they are used to create 'official' figures.

The majority of the data described are known as 'raw', 'primary' or 'source' data in the sense that they represent information that has been collected 'first-hand'; they are original data sources which may then be used for 'secondary' analysis by researchers not involved in the data collection process. The majority of these data are anonymised because they describe the attitudes, behaviour, circumstances and personal details of the individuals being studied. These types of data are heavily used by the academic and government research communities.

The UK Data Service provides access to the following primary data sources:

Study name Coverage Topics

1970 British Cohort Study

 1970-continuing; Great Britain

Socio-economic group

Income from earnings, benefits & investments


British Social Attitudes

1983 – ongoing; Great Britain

Attitudes towards immigration and other groups in society

British Household Panel Survey

Annually 1991 – 2009 (longitudinal);
1991 – 2001: Great Britain
2001 – 2009: United Kingdom

Socio-economic group

Income from labour/non-labour

Housing tenure & conditions

Whether behind with household bills

Whether can afford household expenses like heating

Membership of social/community/religious groups

Health & welfare services used

Citizenship Survey

2001 and 2011; England and Wales

Identity and social networks

Local community




Objective empowerment

Community Life Survey

Annually 2012-2013 – ongoing; households in England

Identity and social networks

Subjective wellbeing

Cultural Capital and Social Exclusion: a Critical Investigation, 2003-2005

2003 – 2005; United Kingdom

Culturally disadvantaged

Economic activity

Housing tenure

Social class

Social exclusion

Deprived White Community? Social Action in Three Norwich Estates, 1940-2005

1940-2005; England

Cost of living

Financial difficulties



Relative deprivation

Social disadvantage

Social exclusion

Standard of living

English Housing Survey: Fuel Poverty Dataset, 2013

2003 – ongoing; England

Households income

Fuel costs

Cost of energy to heat water

Space heating, lights and appliances and for cooking 

Method of payment for gas and electricity


1974 - ongoing; 27 European Union member states (28 with Croatia in 2013); repeated cross-sectional survey

Perceptions of poverty and social exclusion: causes, extent and consequences

Social policies and access to social services

Perceptions of homelessness

European Social Survey

2002 - ongoing; c. 35 countries; repeated cross-sectional survey

Attitudes towards social benefits/ services

Living conditions and social exclusion

European Values Study: Wave 4, Great Britain, 2009-2010
European Values Study (EVS) (external site)
World Values Survey (WVS) (external site)

1981 - ongoing; EVS/WVS data from representative national surveys in 97 societies; repeated cross-sectional survey

Satisfaction with financial situation

Attitudes towards income inequalities

Perceptions of poverty (causes)

European Quality of Life Survey

2003 – ongoing; c. 35 countries; repeated cross-sectional survey

Standard of living and resources

Social network 

Evaluation of social amenities

European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions

2006 – ongoing; c. 30 countries; repeated cross-sectional and longitudinal data

Material deprivation

Over-indebtedness and financial exclusion

Housing conditions

Family Resources Survey

1993-4 – ongoing; families and households in the United Kingdom

Socio-economic group

Income from benefits and investments

Housing costs

Households Below Average Income

1994/95 ongoing, United Kingdom

Socio-economic group

Income from benefits and investments

Housing costs

Winter fuel payments

Interpreting the Local Politics of Social Inclusion, 2004-2005

2004-2005; England and Scotland

Budgetary control


Relative deprivation

Social exclusion

Social problems

Millennium Survey of Poverty and Social Exclusion, 1999 

September – October 1999; Great Britain


Social exclusion

MORI Living in Britain Poll, 1983 

15 February 1983 - 24 February 1983; Great Britain



Social exclusion

OECD Social and Welfare Statistics – Social Expenditure dataset

1980 onwards, annual data for 34 OECD countries plus OECD Total.


Family allowances

Social stratification and groupings

Employment and labour

Social welfare policy and systems

Social indicators and quality of life

Use and provision of specific social services

Opinions and Lifestyle Survey

1990-2007, 2008-ongoing; Great Britain

Attitudes and opinions including some modules around discrimination

Papers of the Child Poverty Action Group, 1965-1998 

1965 – 1998; United Kingdom


Social exclusion

Poverty and Social Exclusion Living Standards Survey, 2012 

2010 - 2014; United Kingdom


Social exclusion

Poverty and Social Exclusion in Northern Ireland, 2002-2003 

2002-2003; Northern Ireland


Social exclusion

Poverty and Social Exclusion in the UK - Qualitative Research Phase I - Focus Groups

2010; United Kingdom

Social exclusion

Standard of living


Poverty in the United Kingdom: A Survey of Household Resources and Standards of Living, 1967-1969 

1967 – 1969; United Kingdom



Standard of living

Shame, social exclusion and the effectiveness of anti-poverty programmes: A study in seven countries 

2010-2012; several countries


Social exclusion

Social Exclusion, Spaces of Household Economic Practice and Post-Socialism, 1989-2006

1989-2006; Poland and Slovakia


Social exclusion


Understanding Society

Annually 2009 – continuing (longitudinal); United Kingdom

Individual & household income

Income from non-labour sources Employment

Socio-economic group

Problems paying household bills

Material deprivation questions

Participate in arts/sports/music/cultural activities

Household items owned

Neighbourhood conditions

Active in social/sports/community/political organisations

Car ownership

United Kingdom Omnibus: Poverty and Social Exclusion Module, 2012

May – August 2012; United Kingdom


Young Lives: an International Study of Childhood Poverty

2002 – ongoing; four countries; longitudinal survey

Child poverty

Economic and household conditions

Vulnerability to environmental conditions

World Bank Africa Development Indicators, 1960-2011

1960 to 2011, annual data for 53 countries and 5 regional country groups

Poverty rate

Poverty gap

Life expectancy

Conflict and fragility

Income distribution

Inequality (gini index)

Labour and Social Projection data.

Child employment


World Bank World Development Indicators

1960 onwards, annual data for over 200 countries and country groups.

GINI index

Income distribution

Poverty rates

Welfare/benefit data

Life expectancy

Other key data publishers

UK Statistics Authority

Data catalogue

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